Background | History Timeline | History of France
||Magellan, Ferdinand, was
a Portuguese sea captain who commanded the first expedition that
sailed around the world. His voyage provided the first positive
proof that the earth is round. Magellan did not live to complete
the voyage, but his imaginative planning and courageous
leadership made the entire expedition possible. Many scholars
consider it the greatest navigational feat in history.
||Charles V ruled over
more countries than any other European monarch. He was the
grandson of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain and also of Emperor
Maximilian I and Mary of Burgundy. Born in Ghent, Belgium, he
inherited the Netherlands and Burgundian lands in 1506. He
became King Charles I of Spain in 1516, and Holy Roman emperor
Charles fought Francis I of France over their rival claims in
Italy. He also fought the Turks who threatened central Europe.
He tried unsuccessfully to put down the Protestants.
||Francis I , became king
in 1515, succeeding Louis XII, who was both his cousin and his
father-in-law. He was intelligent, fond of pleasure, and devoted
to the arts. He was also ambitious, inconstant, and somewhat
dishonest. He began his reign brilliantly with the great victory
of Marignano in 1515. This victory gave him a foothold in
It soon became clear, however, that the interests and ambitions
of France clashed with those of the Holy Roman Empire, which
included Spain and Germany. Francis and the Holy Roman Emperor
Charles V carried on a bitter struggle for years. Francis was
captured and imprisoned in 1525, in another Italian campaign. He
won his freedom in 1526 by making false promises. The last war
between Francis I and Charles V ended in 1544 without having
made great changes. Francis had shown himself greedy for power
and indifferent about how he obtained it.
Francis persecuted the Protestants, but not so severely as some
of his successors had done. Possibly the king would have been
more savage against them if he had not given most of his
attention to other affairs. He enjoyed beautiful surroundings,
took an interest in new art and literature, and spent money
lavishly. Such activities gave him a reputation as a patron of
||Francis II , grandson of
Francis I, became king in 1559, but died the next year. Mary,
Queen of Scots, was his wife. During his reign, the long, bitter
rivalry between the noble houses of Guise and Bourbon began,
which cost France so much during the religious wars between
Catholics and Huguenots.
||Louis XII, called "the
Father of his People," was the son of Charles, Duke of Orleans.
He came to the throne in 1498, succeeding Charles VIII, his
distant cousin. He married Charles' widow, Anne of Brittany.
France prospered under Louis XII, even though he carried on many
wars. The king invaded Italy because he claimed Milan, but he
was driven out in 1512. The next year, Henry VIII of England
defeated Louis in the Battle of the Spurs.
||Louis XI , the son of
Charles VII, was known as the terrible king. While he was still
dauphin (crown prince), he plotted against his father. Once he
was exiled, and once he had to flee for his life. When he came
to the throne in 1461, he set out to break the power of the
nobles, who were almost independent of royal control. Charles
the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, led the nobles. After the duke was
killed in battle in 1477, Louis seized most of his territory.
Later, the king added Provence, Maine, and Anjou to the royal
Louis used cruel methods to keep his power. He made and broke
laws and levied taxes at will. But he strengthened the
government, encouraged art and learning, promoted industry and
agriculture, opened roads and canals, and helped the poor obtain
||Maximilian I reigned as
Holy Roman Emperor from 1493 to 1519. He extended the power of
the House of Habsburg through wars and marriages.
Maximilian, son of Emperor Frederick III, married Mary, daughter
of Charles the Bold of Burgundy, in 1477. He fought Mary's war
with Louis XI of France for possession of Burgundy and the
Netherlands. He won the war, but the Netherland states, hostile
to him, signed a treaty with Louis XI in 1482. The treaty forced
Maximilian to give Burgundy back to Louis XI. Mary died the same
Maximilian became emperor in 1493. He married Bianca, daughter
of the Duke of Milan, in 1494. He fought another long war with
France for control of possessions in Italy, and lost. Maximilian
was forced to grant Switzerland its independence after a war in
Maximilian arranged the marriage of his son, Philip, Archduke of
Austria, to Juana of Castile, daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella
of Spain, in 1496. The marriage gave Spain to the Habsburgs when
Philip and Juana's son became king of Spain and, later, emperor
as Charles V. Maximilian established claims on Hungary and
Bohemia when his grandchildren married heirs of these countries.
He was born in Wiener Neustadt, Austria.
||Catherine de Medici, or,
in Italian, De' Medici, was the wife of King Henry II of France,
and the mother of three French kings. Catherine was a daughter
of Lorenzo, Duke of Urbino, of the Medici family of Florence,
and a niece of Pope Clement VII. She knew well the selfish
political principles practised in Italy during her time. Her
whole career was directed by her ambition and by her abnormal
affection for her sons. When her son Francis II became king in
1559, Catherine began to meddle in state affairs. Francis II
died the next year, leaving a 10-year-old brother, Charles IX,
as king. Catherine then took over the rule of France.
She began to stir up trouble between the Roman Catholics and the
Protestants, in order to strengthen her position as ruler. Her
plan to kill the Protestant leader Gaspard de Coligny failed.
Then she decided that his followers should die. King Charles IX
was forced to order a massacre on St. Bartholomew's Day. Her
plotting continued through the reign of a third son, Henry III.
Catherine and Henry III died in 1589, ending one of the most
tragic eras in French history.
||Coligny, Gaspard de, was
one of the ablest French statesmen during the troubled period of
religious wars. He was born in Chatillon-sur-Loing, France. A
member of a great noble family, he became a Protestant and
assumed a commanding position among the Huguenots. Although he
had the title of "Admiral of France," his reputation as a
fighting man resulted chiefly from land battles. His influence
with King Charles IX aroused the fear of the Duc de Guise and
Catherine de Medicis. At the massacre of the Huguenots on St.
Bartholomew's Day, Coligny was the first to be killed.
||Ferdinand V, king of
Castile and Aragon, married his cousin, Isabella I, in 1469.
This marriage led to the unification of Castile and Aragon,
Spain's two largest kingdoms. The two rulers increased Spain's
power by conquering the Moors, a largely Arabic civilization of
the Middle Ages, in 10 years of war and by sending Christopher
Columbus to America. After Isabella's death in 1504, Ferdinand
added Naples and the province of Navarre to his kingdom. He was
also known as Ferdinand II of Aragon and Sicily, and as
Ferdinand III of Naples. He was born in Sos, Aragon.
||Cromwell, Thomas, Earl of
Essex, was chief minister to Henry VIII of England. He entered
the service of Cardinal Wolsey in 1520 and soon became his chief
legal and financial adviser. Cromwell entered Parliament in
1523. He opposed the treason charges brought against Wolsey.
After Wolsey's death in 1530, Cromwell entered the service of
Henry VIII. From 1533 to 1540, he was Henry's most powerful and
capable minister. Cromwell helped Henry to secure his divorce
from Catherine of Aragon. He also drafted the acts of Parliament
that separated the English Church from the control of the Pope,
and that made Henry supreme head of the Church in England.
Cromwell used his influence in Parliament to secure
Parliamentary consent to these acts.
Cromwell played an important part in the Protestant reform of
the Church in England . Most of his religious reforms had a
political motive. In 1535, Henry appointed him Vicar General of
the Church in England. Cromwell promised to make Henry the
richest king in Christendom. Between 1536 and 1539, Cromwell
closed all the monasteries and shrines in England and Wales, and
all their property passed to the Crown. Cromwell did several
things to make English people Protestant. He ordered English
translations of the Lord's Prayer, the Creed, and the Ten
Commandments to be read in church. He also ordered a translation
of the Bible to be kept in every church for anyone to read.
Cromwell was hated by many people because of his power and
In the spring of 1540, Cromwell was created Earl of Essex. But
his power had waned. He had arranged Henry's marriage to Anne of
Cleves, a German princess. Henry disliked Anne, and turned
against Cromwell. In the summer of 1540, the Duke of Norfolk,
with the support of the Privy Council, accused him of treason.
Cromwell was sent to the Tower of London and beheaded on Tower
Cromwell's probable birthplace was Putney, now in London. As a
young man he led a life of adventure. He fought in the Italian
wars and later became a merchant in Antwerp. He returned to
London and became a trader and moneylender.
||By 1485, the English had
become weary of civil conflict and of frequent changes of rule.
The Wars of the Roses had destroyed many prominent noble
families. The climate was right for the re-establishment of a
strong monarchy and a stable government.
Although his claim was based on his Lancastrian ancestry, Henry
VII brought a new royal house to the throne of England, that of
the Tudors. Henry's claim was, in fact, questionable. Many
doubted whether his mother, Margaret Beaufort, was a legitimate
descendant of John of Gaunt. But even if Henry did not rule by
right of succession, his victory at Bosworth made him king in
reality. He proved to be a strong king and reigned until 1509.
After becoming king in 1485, Henry tried to settle the conflict
between Lancaster and York by marrying Edward IV's daughter,
Elizabeth of York. But there were people with better claims to
the throne than Henry's, and he spent his early years as king
suppressing their plots against him.
Henry strengthened his power by alliances. He married his elder
son, Arthur, to Catherine of Aragon, the daughter of the joint
rulers of Spain. He hoped that this union would win Spain's
support against France. In 1492, Henry began a war with France,
but soon came to terms with the French king, Charles VIII, who
paid him a large sum of money. Henry married his daughter
Margaret to James IV of Scotland. Henry also established peace
in Ireland. At home, he amassed a fortune, which made him
independent of his nobles. He gained his wealth by efficient
management of crown lands and by levying heavier taxes.
Arthur died soon after his marriage, and Henry VII was succeeded
in 1509 by his second son, Henry VIII, a boy of 18. During the
early part of his reign, Henry enjoyed himself while Thomas
Cardinal Wolsey was left with most of the hard work of
government. Later, Thomas Cromwell supplanted Wolsey as Chief
Minister, and from then on Henry took a greater part in running
Henry married his brother Arthur's widow, Catherine of Aragon.
But their only child was a daughter, Mary. Henry realized that a
male heir to the throne was essential for England in those
troubled times. He determined to divorce Catherine and marry
again in the hopes of having a son to succeed him. Henry
quarrelled with the Pope, with Wolsey, and with Sir Thomas More,
the lord chancellor, over the divorce.
Henry VIII's second marriage, to Anne Boleyn, produced a second
daughter, Elizabeth. It was not until his third marriage, to
Jane Seymour, that his longed-for son, who was named Edward, was
born. Henry's later marriages to Anne of Cleves, Catherine
Howard, and Catherine Parr produced no children. Henry's divorce
and subsequent marriages led to a break with the Roman Catholic
Church, and Parliament passed an act recognizing Henry as head
of the Church in England.
Henry was extravagant, greedy, and disloyal to those who served
him. But he was also a patron of the arts, especially music, and
he did a great deal to build up the English navy.
Edward VI was only 9 years old when he became king in 1547. Two
powerful nobles--the Duke of Somerset and the Duke of
Northumberland--fought each other for supremacy of the kingdom.
Somerset was protector (ruler) of the kingdom for four years
before Northumberland overthrew him.
Edward was an ardent Protestant, and before his death from
tuberculosis in 1553, at the age of 16, he made an agreement
with Northumberland to will the throne to his second cousin,
Lady Jane Grey, a granddaughter of Henry VIII's sister, Mary.
Jane was married to Northumberland's son, Lord Guildford Dudley.
Northumberland hoped to retain his hold over the kingdom after
Edward's death. Neither he nor Edward wanted control of the
kingdom to pass to Edward's half-sister, Mary, who was an
enthusiastic Roman Catholic. Although Lady Jane Grey was
proclaimed queen, the plot misfired, and Jane, her husband, and
Northumberland were executed.
Mary I became queen in 1553. She was England's first queen
regnant--that is, she was the first woman to rule in her own
right as queen. During her short reign, England lost Calais, its
last possession in France. Mary's marriage to Philip II of Spain
led to an unpopular alliance with Spain. Under Mary, England
again became officially a Roman Catholic country, and Mary's
government persecuted many Protestants. But Mary died before she
could firmly re-establish Roman Catholicism in England. She was
succeeded by her half-sister, Elizabeth, who was a Protestant.
Elizabeth I was a mature and educated woman of 25 when she came
to the throne in 1558. She deliberately never married, because
she feared that any choice of husband she made would lead to
jealousy and conflict.
During the first part of her reign, Elizabeth consolidated her
authority, made England again independent of the pope in
religious matters, and strengthened the Church of England. Many
Roman Catholics were put to death. During the second part of her
reign, Elizabeth was engaged in a prolonged war against Spain.
To serve her, she had fine captains such as Drake and Hawkins.
She also had able statesmen such as the two Cecils--William,
Lord Burghley, and his son Robert, later Earl of Salisbury.
Elizabeth's personality and charm appealed to the leaders of her
country. But she had several quarrels with Parliament over her
refusal to marry or to name a successor to the throne.
Elizabeth glorified the monarchy and provided her subjects with
a national symbol of state. During her reign, England's overseas
expansion began. Her merchants and mariners made voyages of
discovery. Her diplomats and ministers established England as a
great and important power in Europe.
||Ivan IV, the Terrible, in
1547 became the first Russian ruler to be crowned czar. Known
for his cruelty, he created a stronger and more centralized
government and expanded Russia's territory. Ivan's grandfather
was Grand Prince Ivan III of Moscow, who was also known as Ivan
the Great. Ivan IV became grand prince in 1533 after his father,
Basil III, died. Ivan was only 3 years old, and nobles fought to
control the government.
After Ivan began to rule independently in 1547, he conquered
vast lands southeast of Moscow along the Volga River and opened
trade with England. In the 1560's, he established his personal,
arbitrary rule in much of Russia. His political police
terrorized nobles, merchants, and peasants. Ivan's laws helped
bind many peasants to the land as serfs. In the 1580's, Russia's
Stroganov family sponsored the conquest of western Siberia and
gave it to Ivan to add to the realm.
||Roberval, Sieur de, was
one of the first French explorers and colonists in Canada. King
Francis I made him a viceroy and lieutenant general of Canada in
1541. Roberval organized a colonizing expedition, followed
Jacques Cartier to Canada, and landed in Newfoundland in 1542
with about 200 colonists. Roberval proceeded up the Saint
Lawrence River, and spent the winter at Charlesbourg Royal (now
a suburb of Quebec). After months of hardships, Roberval
returned to France in 1543 with the few surviving colonists.
Later, he again tried his luck, but without success. He was
murdered in 1560 or 1561. Roberval's real name was Jean Francois
de la Rocque.
||Henry II succeeded his
father, Francis I, in 1547. He was ambitious and persistent, but
he differed from his father in most respects. He tormented
Huguenots (French Protestants) and took their lands. These
actions helped start the destructive French religious wars.
Henry contested Spain's dominance over Italy but never could
defeat the Spaniards. In 1559, he signed the Treaty of
Cateau-Cambresis, which formally recognized Spanish control in
Italy. Elsewhere, Henry was more successful. He took Calais,
England's last possession in France, and the cities of Metz,
Toul, and Verdun from the Holy Roman Empire. Henry's wife was
Catherine de Medicis. His sons, Francis II, Charles IX, and
Henry III, succeeded him.
||Henry III, third son of
Henry II, succeeded his brother Charles IX in 1574. He had
received the Polish crown earlier the same year, but he left
Poland when he heard of Charles' death. Henry was a weakling who
divided his time between scheming and immorality. His mother,
Catherine de Medicis, held great authority during the earlier
part of his reign. Then influence passed to his favourites among
the young nobles. Finally, a contest for power took place
between two strong rival leaders, the Roman Catholic Henry, Duke
of Guise, and the Protestant Henry of Navarre. The contest
continued throughout the reign. Alarmed at concessions that were
made to the Huguenots, the Catholics organized the Catholic
League. This led to open war. In the War of the Three Henrys,
the real contest was between Henry of Guise and Henry of
Navarre. Henry III was jealous of the Duke of Guise, and
arranged the duke's assassination. He then had to flee to
Navarre for protection. Henry III was the last Valois king of
||Henry IV, who succeeded
Henry III in 1589, was Henry of Navarre, the Protestant leader
in the War of the Three Henrys. He was the first Bourbon king,
and was a man of courage, vigour, and intelligence. Religious
conflict continued after the death of Henry III, and Henry IV
realized that he could restore peace only if he himself became
Catholic. In 1593, he was accepted into the Catholic Church.
This brought recognition of his right to the kingship, and
French cities welcomed him on his triumphal march to Paris.
Another of Henry's great successes was victory over Spain. Spain
had repeatedly interfered in French affairs, plotting with
rivals for the French throne and supporting the Catholic League.
Henry decided to stop this interference, and joined the English
and Dutch in their war against King Philip II. The Spanish ruler
yielded and recognized Henry as king of France.
In 1598, Henry issued the Edict of Nantes, which granted
considerable rights and privileges to the Huguenots. The edict
made remarkable concessions to the Huguenot minority in a
country as strongly Catholic as France. Before he was murdered,
Henry also reformed France's finances, strengthened its
agriculture and commerce, and worked to maintain a balance of
power in Europe that helped protect France.
||William I, Prince of
Orange, was the father of the Dutch Republic. He was called
William the Silent because of his cautious nature.
William was born in Dillenburg, near Wetzlar, Germany. His
parents were Lutherans, but William became a Roman Catholic to
please Emperor Charles V, who had taken a liking to him. He put
William in command of troops on the French frontier in 1555.
In 1556, Charles gave the throne to his son Philip II. Philip
tried to increase control of the Low Countries (Belgium and the
Netherlands). When he also tried to stamp out the Protestant
religion there, William joined the Protestant Church. He led a
rebellion against Spain in 1568. Although William tried hard to
unite all the Low Countries in the revolt, he did not succeed.
In 1579, the seven northern provinces formed a league which
later became the Dutch Republic. In 1581, Philip put a price on
William's head, and three years later an insane assassin killed
||Charles IX came to the
throne in 1560 upon the death of his brother, Francis II. His
clever and scheming mother, Catherine de Medicis, directed the
kingdom throughout most of his reign. She conspired with Roman
Catholic leaders to assassinate the leading Protestants, who
favoured war with Spain. The result was the Massacre of Saint
Bartholomew's Day in 1572. Charles died soon after and religious
||Alva, Duke of , also
called the Duke of Alba, was a Spanish general and diplomat who
served kings Charles I and Philip II of Spain. In 1567, Philip
made Alva governor of the Netherlands, and ordered him to crush
a revolt that had broken out there against Spain. Alva's court
sentenced about 1,200 rebels to death and was called the Council
of Blood. His brutality and harsh taxes only made Netherlanders
more determined to be free. Patriots seized the major coast
towns and attacked Spanish shipping. They cut the dykes, and the
floodwaters stopped Alva's army. Alva returned to Spain in
disgrace. In 1580, however, he helped Philip conquer Portugal.
The duke's full name was Fernando Alvarez de Toledo.
Fils de Hugues le Grand et d'Hedwige, fille de
Henri Ier l'Oiseleur.
Né à vers 946.
Roi de France vers la fin mai 987.
Mort le 24 octobre 996.
Fils de Hugues Capet et d'Adélaïde d'Aquitaine.
Né à Orléans vers 971.
Associé au trône le 24 décembre 987.
Roi de France le 24 octobre 996.
Mort à Melun le 20 juillet 1031.
Fils de Robert II et de Constance d'Arles.
Né vers 1008.
Associé au trône en 1027.
Roi de France le 20 juillet 1031.
Mort à Vitry-en-Brie le 4 août 1060.
Fils de Henri Ier et d'Anne de Russie.
Né en 1052.
Associé au trône le 23 mai 1059 ?
Roi de France le 4 août 1060 sous la régence de Baudoin V, comte
Mort à Melun le 3 août 1108.
Fils de Philippe Ier et de Berthe de Hollande.
Né en décembre 1081 ?
Associé au trône en 1098.
Roi de France le 3 août 1108.
Mort à Paris le 1er août 1137.
Fils de Louis VI et d'Adélaïde de Maurienne.
Né en 1120.
Associé au trône le 25 octobre 1131.
Roi de France le 1er août 1137.
Mort à Paris le 18 septembre 1180.
Fils de Louis VII et d’Alix de Champagne.
Né à Gonesse, près Paris, le 21 août 1165.
Associé au trône en 1179.
Roi de France le 18 septembre 1180.
Mort à Mantes le 14 juillet 1223.
Fils de Philippe II et d’Isabelle de Hainaut.
Né à Paris le 3 ou le 5septembre 1187.
Roi de France le 14 juillet 1223.
Mort à Montpensier le 8 novembre 1226.
Fils de Louis VIII et de Blanche de Castille.
Né à Poissy le 25 avril 1214.
Roi de France le 8 novembre 1226.
Mort devant Tunis le 25 août 1270.
Fils de Louis IX et de Marguerite de
Né à Poissy le 30 avril ou le 1er mai 1245.
Roi de France le 25 août 1270.
Mort à Perpignan le 5 octobre 1285.
Fils de Philippe III et d'Isabelle d'Aragon.
Né à Fontainebleau en 1268.
Roi de France le 5 octobre 1285.
Mort à Fontainebleau le 29 novembre 1314.
Fils de Philippe IV et de Jeanne de Navarre.
Né à Paris le 4 octobre 1289.
Roi de France le 29 novembre 1314.
Mort à Vincennes le 5 juin 1316.
Fils de Philippe IV et de Jeanne de Navarre.
Né en 1294.
Régent du royaume de France le 5 juin 1316.
Roi de France le 19 novembre 1316.
Mort à Longchamp le 3 janvier 1322.
Fils de Philippe IV et de Jeanne de Navarre.
Né en 1294.
Roi de France le 3 janvier 1322.
Mort à Vincennes le 1er février 1328.
Fils de Charles de Valois et d'Isabelle
Né en 1293.
Régent du royaume de France le 1er février 1328.
Roi de France le 1er avril 1328.
Mort à Nogent-le-Roi le 22 août 1350.
Fils de Philippe VI et de Jeanne de
Né au château du Gué de Maulny (Sarthe) le 26 avril 1319.
Roi de France le 22 août 1350.
Mort à Londres le 8 avril 1364.
Fils de Jean II et de Bonne de Luxembourg.
Né à Vincennes le 21 janvier 1338.
Roi de France le 8 avril 1364.
Mort à Vincennes le 16 septembre 1380.
Fils de Charles V et de Jeanne de Bourbon.
Né à Paris le 3 décembre 1368.
Roi de France le 16 septembre 1380.
Mort à Paris le 21 ou le 22 octobre 1422.
Fils de Charles VI et d'Isabel de Bavière.
Né à Paris le 22 février 1403.
Régent du royaume de France le 24 juin 1418.
Roi de France le 22 octobre 1422.
Mort à Mehun-sur-Yèvre le 22 juillet 1461.
Fils de Charles VII et de Marie d'Anjou.
Né à Bourges le 3 juillet 1423.
Roi de France le 22 juillet 1461.
Mort au Plessis-lès-Tours le 30 août 1483.
Fils de Louis XI et de Charlotte de Savoie.
Né à Amboise le 30 juin 1470.
Roi de France le 30 août 1483.
Mort à Amboise le 7 avril 1498.
Fils de Charles d'Orléans et de Marie de
Né à Blois le 27 juin 1462.
Roi de France le 7 avril 1498.
Mort à Paris le 1er janvier 1515.
Fils de Charles d'Angoulême et de Louise de
Né à Cognac le 12 septembre 1494.
Roi de France le 1er janvier 1515.
Mort à Rambouillet le 31 mars 1547.
Fils de François Ier et de Claude de France.
Né à Saint-Germain-en-Laye le 31 mars 1519.
Roi de France le 31 mars 1547.
Mort à Paris le 10 juillet 1559.
Fils de Henri II et de Catherine de Médicis.
Né à Fontainebleau le 19 janvier 1544.
Roi de France le 10 juillet 1559.
Mort à Orléans le 5 décembre 1560.
Fils de Henri II et de Catherine de Médicis.
Né à Saint-Germain-en-Laye le 27 juin 1550.
Roi de France le 5 décembre 1560.
Mort à Vincennes le 30 mai 1574.
Fils de Henri II et de Catherine de Médicis.
Né à Fontainebleau le 19 septembre 1551.
Roi de France le 30 mai 1574.
Mort à Saint-Cloud le 2 août 1589.
Fils de Antoine de Bourbon et de Jeanne
Né à Pau le 12, 13 ou 14 décembre 1553.
Roi de France le 2 août 1589.
Mort à Paris le 14 mai 1610.
Fils de Henri IV et de Marie de Médicis.
Né à Fontainebleau le 27 septembre 1601.
Roi de France le 14 mai 1610.
Mort à Saint-Germain-en-Laye le 14 mai 1643.
Fils de Louis XIII et d'Anne d'Autriche.
Né à Saint-Germain-en-Laye le 5 septembre 1638.
Roi de France le 14 mai 1643.
Mort à Versailles le 1er septembre 1715.
Fils de Louis de Bourgogne et de Marie-Adélaïde
Né à Versailles le 15 février 1710.
Roi de France le 1er septembre 1715.
Mort à Versailles le 10 mai 1774.
Fils du dauphin Louis, fils de Louis XV, et de
Marie-Josèphe de Saxe.
Né à Versailles le 23 août 1754.
Roi de France le 10 mai 1774.
Mort à Paris le 21 janvier 1793.
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