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Background | History Timeline | History of France




History Timeline

1480 1521 Magellan, Ferdinand, was a Portuguese sea captain who commanded the first expedition that sailed around the world. His voyage provided the first positive proof that the earth is round. Magellan did not live to complete the voyage, but his imaginative planning and courageous leadership made the entire expedition possible. Many scholars consider it the greatest navigational feat in history.
1500 1558 Charles V  ruled over more countries than any other European monarch. He was the grandson of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain and also of Emperor Maximilian I and Mary of Burgundy. Born in Ghent, Belgium, he inherited the Netherlands and Burgundian lands in 1506. He became King Charles I of Spain in 1516, and Holy Roman emperor in 1519. 

Charles fought Francis I of France over their rival claims in Italy. He also fought the Turks who threatened central Europe. He tried unsuccessfully to put down the Protestants.
1494 1547 Francis I , became king in 1515, succeeding Louis XII, who was both his cousin and his father-in-law. He was intelligent, fond of pleasure, and devoted to the arts. He was also ambitious, inconstant, and somewhat dishonest. He began his reign brilliantly with the great victory of Marignano in 1515. This victory gave him a foothold in northern Italy. 

It soon became clear, however, that the interests and ambitions of France clashed with those of the Holy Roman Empire, which included Spain and Germany. Francis and the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V carried on a bitter struggle for years. Francis was captured and imprisoned in 1525, in another Italian campaign. He won his freedom in 1526 by making false promises. The last war between Francis I and Charles V ended in 1544 without having made great changes. Francis had shown himself greedy for power and indifferent about how he obtained it. 

Francis persecuted the Protestants, but not so severely as some of his successors had done. Possibly the king would have been more savage against them if he had not given most of his attention to other affairs. He enjoyed beautiful surroundings, took an interest in new art and literature, and spent money lavishly. Such activities gave him a reputation as a patron of the Renaissance.
1544 1560 Francis II , grandson of Francis I, became king in 1559, but died the next year. Mary, Queen of Scots, was his wife. During his reign, the long, bitter rivalry between the noble houses of Guise and Bourbon began, which cost France so much during the religious wars between Catholics and Huguenots.
1462 1515 Louis XII, called "the Father of his People," was the son of Charles, Duke of Orleans. He came to the throne in 1498, succeeding Charles VIII, his distant cousin. He married Charles' widow, Anne of Brittany. 

France prospered under Louis XII, even though he carried on many wars. The king invaded Italy because he claimed Milan, but he was driven out in 1512. The next year, Henry VIII of England defeated Louis in the Battle of the Spurs.
1423 1483 Louis XI , the son of Charles VII, was known as the terrible king. While he was still dauphin (crown prince), he plotted against his father. Once he was exiled, and once he had to flee for his life. When he came to the throne in 1461, he set out to break the power of the nobles, who were almost independent of royal control. Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, led the nobles. After the duke was killed in battle in 1477, Louis seized most of his territory. Later, the king added Provence, Maine, and Anjou to the royal domain. 

Louis used cruel methods to keep his power. He made and broke laws and levied taxes at will. But he strengthened the government, encouraged art and learning, promoted industry and agriculture, opened roads and canals, and helped the poor obtain justice.
1459 1519 Maximilian I  reigned as Holy Roman Emperor from 1493 to 1519. He extended the power of the House of Habsburg through wars and marriages. 

Maximilian, son of Emperor Frederick III, married Mary, daughter of Charles the Bold of Burgundy, in 1477. He fought Mary's war with Louis XI of France for possession of Burgundy and the Netherlands. He won the war, but the Netherland states, hostile to him, signed a treaty with Louis XI in 1482. The treaty forced Maximilian to give Burgundy back to Louis XI. Mary died the same year. 

Maximilian became emperor in 1493. He married Bianca, daughter of the Duke of Milan, in 1494. He fought another long war with France for control of possessions in Italy, and lost. Maximilian was forced to grant Switzerland its independence after a war in 1499. 

Maximilian arranged the marriage of his son, Philip, Archduke of Austria, to Juana of Castile, daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, in 1496. The marriage gave Spain to the Habsburgs when Philip and Juana's son became king of Spain and, later, emperor as Charles V. Maximilian established claims on Hungary and Bohemia when his grandchildren married heirs of these countries. He was born in Wiener Neustadt, Austria.
1519 1589 Catherine de Medici, or, in Italian, De' Medici, was the wife of King Henry II of France, and the mother of three French kings. Catherine was a daughter of Lorenzo, Duke of Urbino, of the Medici family of Florence, and a niece of Pope Clement VII. She knew well the selfish political principles practised in Italy during her time. Her whole career was directed by her ambition and by her abnormal affection for her sons. When her son Francis II became king in 1559, Catherine began to meddle in state affairs. Francis II died the next year, leaving a 10-year-old brother, Charles IX, as king. Catherine then took over the rule of France. 

She began to stir up trouble between the Roman Catholics and the Protestants, in order to strengthen her position as ruler. Her plan to kill the Protestant leader Gaspard de Coligny failed. Then she decided that his followers should die. King Charles IX was forced to order a massacre on St. Bartholomew's Day. Her plotting continued through the reign of a third son, Henry III. Catherine and Henry III died in 1589, ending one of the most tragic eras in French history.
1519 1572 Coligny, Gaspard de, was one of the ablest French statesmen during the troubled period of religious wars. He was born in Chatillon-sur-Loing, France. A member of a great noble family, he became a Protestant and assumed a commanding position among the Huguenots. Although he had the title of "Admiral of France," his reputation as a fighting man resulted chiefly from land battles. His influence with King Charles IX aroused the fear of the Duc de Guise and Catherine de Medicis. At the massacre of the Huguenots on St. Bartholomew's Day, Coligny was the first to be killed.
1452 1516 Ferdinand V, king of Castile and Aragon, married his cousin, Isabella I, in 1469. This marriage led to the unification of Castile and Aragon, Spain's two largest kingdoms. The two rulers increased Spain's power by conquering the Moors, a largely Arabic civilization of the Middle Ages, in 10 years of war and by sending Christopher Columbus to America. After Isabella's death in 1504, Ferdinand added Naples and the province of Navarre to his kingdom. He was also known as Ferdinand II of Aragon and Sicily, and as Ferdinand III of Naples. He was born in Sos, Aragon.
1485 1540 Cromwell, Thomas, Earl of Essex, was chief minister to Henry VIII of England. He entered the service of Cardinal Wolsey in 1520 and soon became his chief legal and financial adviser. Cromwell entered Parliament in 1523. He opposed the treason charges brought against Wolsey. 

After Wolsey's death in 1530, Cromwell entered the service of Henry VIII. From 1533 to 1540, he was Henry's most powerful and capable minister. Cromwell helped Henry to secure his divorce from Catherine of Aragon. He also drafted the acts of Parliament that separated the English Church from the control of the Pope, and that made Henry supreme head of the Church in England. Cromwell used his influence in Parliament to secure Parliamentary consent to these acts. 

Cromwell played an important part in the Protestant reform of the Church in England . Most of his religious reforms had a political motive. In 1535, Henry appointed him Vicar General of the Church in England. Cromwell promised to make Henry the richest king in Christendom. Between 1536 and 1539, Cromwell closed all the monasteries and shrines in England and Wales, and all their property passed to the Crown. Cromwell did several things to make English people Protestant. He ordered English translations of the Lord's Prayer, the Creed, and the Ten Commandments to be read in church. He also ordered a translation of the Bible to be kept in every church for anyone to read. Cromwell was hated by many people because of his power and ruthlessness. 

In the spring of 1540, Cromwell was created Earl of Essex. But his power had waned. He had arranged Henry's marriage to Anne of Cleves, a German princess. Henry disliked Anne, and turned against Cromwell. In the summer of 1540, the Duke of Norfolk, with the support of the Privy Council, accused him of treason. Cromwell was sent to the Tower of London and beheaded on Tower Hill. 

Cromwell's probable birthplace was Putney, now in London. As a young man he led a life of adventure. He fought in the Italian wars and later became a merchant in Antwerp. He returned to London and became a trader and moneylender.
1485 1600 By 1485, the English had become weary of civil conflict and of frequent changes of rule. The Wars of the Roses had destroyed many prominent noble families. The climate was right for the re-establishment of a strong monarchy and a stable government. 

Although his claim was based on his Lancastrian ancestry, Henry VII brought a new royal house to the throne of England, that of the Tudors. Henry's claim was, in fact, questionable. Many doubted whether his mother, Margaret Beaufort, was a legitimate descendant of John of Gaunt. But even if Henry did not rule by right of succession, his victory at Bosworth made him king in reality. He proved to be a strong king and reigned until 1509. 

After becoming king in 1485, Henry tried to settle the conflict between Lancaster and York by marrying Edward IV's daughter, Elizabeth of York. But there were people with better claims to the throne than Henry's, and he spent his early years as king suppressing their plots against him. 

Henry strengthened his power by alliances. He married his elder son, Arthur, to Catherine of Aragon, the daughter of the joint rulers of Spain. He hoped that this union would win Spain's support against France. In 1492, Henry began a war with France, but soon came to terms with the French king, Charles VIII, who paid him a large sum of money. Henry married his daughter Margaret to James IV of Scotland. Henry also established peace in Ireland. At home, he amassed a fortune, which made him independent of his nobles. He gained his wealth by efficient management of crown lands and by levying heavier taxes. 

Arthur died soon after his marriage, and Henry VII was succeeded in 1509 by his second son, Henry VIII, a boy of 18. During the early part of his reign, Henry enjoyed himself while Thomas Cardinal Wolsey was left with most of the hard work of government. Later, Thomas Cromwell supplanted Wolsey as Chief Minister, and from then on Henry took a greater part in running the country. 

Henry married his brother Arthur's widow, Catherine of Aragon. But their only child was a daughter, Mary. Henry realized that a male heir to the throne was essential for England in those troubled times. He determined to divorce Catherine and marry again in the hopes of having a son to succeed him. Henry quarrelled with the Pope, with Wolsey, and with Sir Thomas More, the lord chancellor, over the divorce. 

Henry VIII's second marriage, to Anne Boleyn, produced a second daughter, Elizabeth. It was not until his third marriage, to Jane Seymour, that his longed-for son, who was named Edward, was born. Henry's later marriages to Anne of Cleves, Catherine Howard, and Catherine Parr produced no children. Henry's divorce and subsequent marriages led to a break with the Roman Catholic Church, and Parliament passed an act recognizing Henry as head of the Church in England. 

Henry was extravagant, greedy, and disloyal to those who served him. But he was also a patron of the arts, especially music, and he did a great deal to build up the English navy. 

Edward VI was only 9 years old when he became king in 1547. Two powerful nobles--the Duke of Somerset and the Duke of Northumberland--fought each other for supremacy of the kingdom. Somerset was protector (ruler) of the kingdom for four years before Northumberland overthrew him. 

Edward was an ardent Protestant, and before his death from tuberculosis in 1553, at the age of 16, he made an agreement with Northumberland to will the throne to his second cousin, Lady Jane Grey, a granddaughter of Henry VIII's sister, Mary. Jane was married to Northumberland's son, Lord Guildford Dudley. Northumberland hoped to retain his hold over the kingdom after Edward's death. Neither he nor Edward wanted control of the kingdom to pass to Edward's half-sister, Mary, who was an enthusiastic Roman Catholic. Although Lady Jane Grey was proclaimed queen, the plot misfired, and Jane, her husband, and Northumberland were executed. 

Mary I became queen in 1553. She was England's first queen regnant--that is, she was the first woman to rule in her own right as queen. During her short reign, England lost Calais, its last possession in France. Mary's marriage to Philip II of Spain led to an unpopular alliance with Spain. Under Mary, England again became officially a Roman Catholic country, and Mary's government persecuted many Protestants. But Mary died before she could firmly re-establish Roman Catholicism in England. She was succeeded by her half-sister, Elizabeth, who was a Protestant. 

Elizabeth I was a mature and educated woman of 25 when she came to the throne in 1558. She deliberately never married, because she feared that any choice of husband she made would lead to jealousy and conflict. 

During the first part of her reign, Elizabeth consolidated her authority, made England again independent of the pope in religious matters, and strengthened the Church of England. Many Roman Catholics were put to death. During the second part of her reign, Elizabeth was engaged in a prolonged war against Spain. To serve her, she had fine captains such as Drake and Hawkins. She also had able statesmen such as the two Cecils--William, Lord Burghley, and his son Robert, later Earl of Salisbury. 

Elizabeth's personality and charm appealed to the leaders of her country. But she had several quarrels with Parliament over her refusal to marry or to name a successor to the throne. 

Elizabeth glorified the monarchy and provided her subjects with a national symbol of state. During her reign, England's overseas expansion began. Her merchants and mariners made voyages of discovery. Her diplomats and ministers established England as a great and important power in Europe.
1530 1584 Ivan IV, the Terrible, in 1547 became the first Russian ruler to be crowned czar. Known for his cruelty, he created a stronger and more centralized government and expanded Russia's territory. Ivan's grandfather was Grand Prince Ivan III of Moscow, who was also known as Ivan the Great. Ivan IV became grand prince in 1533 after his father, Basil III, died. Ivan was only 3 years old, and nobles fought to control the government. 

After Ivan began to rule independently in 1547, he conquered vast lands southeast of Moscow along the Volga River and opened trade with England. In the 1560's, he established his personal, arbitrary rule in much of Russia. His political police terrorized nobles, merchants, and peasants. Ivan's laws helped bind many peasants to the land as serfs. In the 1580's, Russia's Stroganov family sponsored the conquest of western Siberia and gave it to Ivan to add to the realm.
1500 1560 Roberval, Sieur de, was one of the first French explorers and colonists in Canada. King Francis I made him a viceroy and lieutenant general of Canada in 1541. Roberval organized a colonizing expedition, followed Jacques Cartier to Canada, and landed in Newfoundland in 1542 with about 200 colonists. Roberval proceeded up the Saint Lawrence River, and spent the winter at Charlesbourg Royal (now a suburb of Quebec). After months of hardships, Roberval returned to France in 1543 with the few surviving colonists. Later, he again tried his luck, but without success. He was murdered in 1560 or 1561. Roberval's real name was Jean Francois de la Rocque.
1519 1559 Henry II  succeeded his father, Francis I, in 1547. He was ambitious and persistent, but he differed from his father in most respects. He tormented Huguenots (French Protestants) and took their lands. These actions helped start the destructive French religious wars. Henry contested Spain's dominance over Italy but never could defeat the Spaniards. In 1559, he signed the Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis, which formally recognized Spanish control in Italy. Elsewhere, Henry was more successful. He took Calais, England's last possession in France, and the cities of Metz, Toul, and Verdun from the Holy Roman Empire. Henry's wife was Catherine de Medicis. His sons, Francis II, Charles IX, and Henry III, succeeded him.
1551 1589 Henry III, third son of Henry II, succeeded his brother Charles IX in 1574. He had received the Polish crown earlier the same year, but he left Poland when he heard of Charles' death. Henry was a weakling who divided his time between scheming and immorality. His mother, Catherine de Medicis, held great authority during the earlier part of his reign. Then influence passed to his favourites among the young nobles. Finally, a contest for power took place between two strong rival leaders, the Roman Catholic Henry, Duke of Guise, and the Protestant Henry of Navarre. The contest continued throughout the reign. Alarmed at concessions that were made to the Huguenots, the Catholics organized the Catholic League. This led to open war. In the War of the Three Henrys, the real contest was between Henry of Guise and Henry of Navarre. Henry III was jealous of the Duke of Guise, and arranged the duke's assassination. He then had to flee to Navarre for protection. Henry III was the last Valois king of France.
1553 1610 Henry IV, who succeeded Henry III in 1589, was Henry of Navarre, the Protestant leader in the War of the Three Henrys. He was the first Bourbon king, and was a man of courage, vigour, and intelligence. Religious conflict continued after the death of Henry III, and Henry IV realized that he could restore peace only if he himself became Catholic. In 1593, he was accepted into the Catholic Church. This brought recognition of his right to the kingship, and French cities welcomed him on his triumphal march to Paris. 

Another of Henry's great successes was victory over Spain. Spain had repeatedly interfered in French affairs, plotting with rivals for the French throne and supporting the Catholic League. Henry decided to stop this interference, and joined the English and Dutch in their war against King Philip II. The Spanish ruler yielded and recognized Henry as king of France. 

In 1598, Henry issued the Edict of Nantes, which granted considerable rights and privileges to the Huguenots. The edict made remarkable concessions to the Huguenot minority in a country as strongly Catholic as France. Before he was murdered, Henry also reformed France's finances, strengthened its agriculture and commerce, and worked to maintain a balance of power in Europe that helped protect France.
1533 1584 William I, Prince of Orange, was the father of the Dutch Republic. He was called William the Silent because of his cautious nature. 

William was born in Dillenburg, near Wetzlar, Germany. His parents were Lutherans, but William became a Roman Catholic to please Emperor Charles V, who had taken a liking to him. He put William in command of troops on the French frontier in 1555. 

In 1556, Charles gave the throne to his son Philip II. Philip tried to increase control of the Low Countries (Belgium and the Netherlands). When he also tried to stamp out the Protestant religion there, William joined the Protestant Church. He led a rebellion against Spain in 1568. Although William tried hard to unite all the Low Countries in the revolt, he did not succeed. In 1579, the seven northern provinces formed a league which later became the Dutch Republic. In 1581, Philip put a price on William's head, and three years later an insane assassin killed him.
1550 1574 Charles IX came to the throne in 1560 upon the death of his brother, Francis II. His clever and scheming mother, Catherine de Medicis, directed the kingdom throughout most of his reign. She conspired with Roman Catholic leaders to assassinate the leading Protestants, who favoured war with Spain. The result was the Massacre of Saint Bartholomew's Day in 1572. Charles died soon after and religious strife continued.
1508 1582 Alva, Duke of , also called the Duke of Alba, was a Spanish general and diplomat who served kings Charles I and Philip II of Spain. In 1567, Philip made Alva governor of the Netherlands, and ordered him to crush a revolt that had broken out there against Spain. Alva's court sentenced about 1,200 rebels to death and was called the Council of Blood. His brutality and harsh taxes only made Netherlanders more determined to be free. Patriots seized the major coast towns and attacked Spanish shipping. They cut the dykes, and the floodwaters stopped Alva's army. Alva returned to Spain in disgrace. In 1580, however, he helped Philip conquer Portugal. The duke's full name was Fernando Alvarez de Toledo.


King of France

Hugues Capet

Fils de Hugues le Grand et d'Hedwige, fille de Henri Ier l'Oiseleur.
Né à vers 946.
Roi de France vers la fin mai 987.
Mort le 24 octobre 996.


Robert II

Fils de Hugues Capet et d'Adélaïde d'Aquitaine.
Né à Orléans vers 971.
Associé au trône le 24 décembre 987.
Roi de France le 24 octobre 996.
Mort à Melun le 20 juillet 1031.


Henri Ier

Fils de Robert II et de Constance d'Arles.
Né vers 1008.
Associé au trône en 1027.
Roi de France le 20 juillet 1031.
Mort à Vitry-en-Brie le 4 août 1060.


Philippe Ier

Fils de Henri Ier et d'Anne de Russie.
Né en 1052.
Associé au trône le 23 mai 1059 ?
Roi de France le 4 août 1060 sous la régence de Baudoin V, comte de Flandre.
Mort à Melun le 3 août 1108.


Louis VI

Fils de Philippe Ier et de Berthe de Hollande.
Né en décembre 1081 ?
Associé au trône en 1098.
Roi de France le 3 août 1108.
Mort à Paris le 1er août 1137.


Louis VII

Fils de Louis VI et d'Adélaïde de Maurienne.
Né en 1120.
Associé au trône le 25 octobre 1131.
Roi de France le 1er août 1137.
Mort à Paris le 18 septembre 1180.

Philippe II

Fils de Louis VII et d’Alix de Champagne.
Né à Gonesse, près Paris, le 21 août 1165.
Associé au trône en 1179.
Roi de France le 18 septembre 1180.
Mort à Mantes le 14 juillet 1223.

Louis VIII

Fils de Philippe II et d’Isabelle de Hainaut.
Né à Paris le 3 ou le 5septembre 1187.
Roi de France le 14 juillet 1223.
Mort à Montpensier le 8 novembre 1226.

Louis IX

Fils de Louis VIII et de Blanche de Castille.
Né à Poissy le 25 avril 1214.
Roi de France le 8 novembre 1226.
Mort devant Tunis le 25 août 1270.

Philippe III

Fils de Louis IX et de Marguerite de Provence.
Né à Poissy le 30 avril ou le 1er mai 1245.
Roi de France le 25 août 1270.
Mort à Perpignan le 5 octobre 1285.

Philippe IV

Fils de Philippe III et d'Isabelle d'Aragon.
Né à Fontainebleau en 1268.
Roi de France le 5 octobre 1285.
Mort à Fontainebleau le 29 novembre 1314.

Louis X

Fils de Philippe IV et de Jeanne de Navarre.
Né à Paris le 4 octobre 1289.
Roi de France le 29 novembre 1314.
Mort à Vincennes le 5 juin 1316.

Philippe V

Fils de Philippe IV et de Jeanne de Navarre.
Né en 1294.
Régent du royaume de France le 5 juin 1316.
Roi de France le 19 novembre 1316.
Mort à Longchamp le 3 janvier 1322.

Charles IV

Fils de Philippe IV et de Jeanne de Navarre.
Né en 1294.
Roi de France le 3 janvier 1322.
Mort à Vincennes le 1er février 1328.

Philippe VI

Fils de Charles de Valois et d'Isabelle d'Aragon.
Né en 1293.
Régent du royaume de France le 1er février 1328.
Roi de France le 1er avril 1328.
Mort à Nogent-le-Roi le 22 août 1350.

Jean II

Fils de Philippe VI et de Jeanne de Bourgogne.
Né au château du Gué de Maulny (Sarthe) le 26 avril 1319.
Roi de France le 22 août 1350.
Mort à Londres le 8 avril 1364.

Charles V

Fils de Jean II et de Bonne de Luxembourg.
Né à Vincennes le 21 janvier 1338.
Roi de France le 8 avril 1364.
Mort à Vincennes le 16 septembre 1380.

Charles VI

Fils de Charles V et de Jeanne de Bourbon.
Né à Paris le 3 décembre 1368.
Roi de France le 16 septembre 1380.
Mort à Paris le 21 ou le 22 octobre 1422.


Charles VII

Fils de Charles VI et d'Isabel de Bavière.
Né à Paris le 22 février 1403.
Régent du royaume de France le 24 juin 1418.
Roi de France le 22 octobre 1422.
Mort à Mehun-sur-Yèvre le 22 juillet 1461.

Louis XI

Fils de Charles VII et de Marie d'Anjou.
Né à Bourges le 3 juillet 1423.
Roi de France le 22 juillet 1461.
Mort au Plessis-lès-Tours le 30 août 1483.

Charles VIII

Fils de Louis XI et de Charlotte de Savoie.
Né à Amboise le 30 juin 1470.
Roi de France le 30 août 1483.
Mort à Amboise le 7 avril 1498.

Louis XII

Fils de Charles d'Orléans et de Marie de Clèves.
Né à Blois le 27 juin 1462.
Roi de France le 7 avril 1498.
Mort à Paris le 1er janvier 1515.

François Ier

Fils de Charles d'Angoulême et de Louise de Savoie.
Né à Cognac le 12 septembre 1494.
Roi de France le 1er janvier 1515.
Mort à Rambouillet le 31 mars 1547.

Henri II

Fils de François Ier et de Claude de France.
Né à Saint-Germain-en-Laye le 31 mars 1519.
Roi de France le 31 mars 1547.
Mort à Paris le 10 juillet 1559.

François II

Fils de Henri II et de Catherine de Médicis.
Né à Fontainebleau le 19 janvier 1544.
Roi de France le 10 juillet 1559.
Mort à Orléans le 5 décembre 1560.

Charles IX

Fils de Henri II et de Catherine de Médicis.
Né à Saint-Germain-en-Laye le 27 juin 1550.
Roi de France le 5 décembre 1560.
Mort à Vincennes le 30 mai 1574.

Henri III

Fils de Henri II et de Catherine de Médicis.
Né à Fontainebleau le 19 septembre 1551.
Roi de France le 30 mai 1574.
Mort à Saint-Cloud le 2 août 1589.

Henri IV

Fils de Antoine de Bourbon et de Jeanne d'Albret.
Né à Pau le 12, 13 ou 14 décembre 1553.
Roi de France le 2 août 1589.
Mort à Paris le 14 mai 1610.

Louis XIII

Fils de Henri IV et de Marie de Médicis.
Né à Fontainebleau le 27 septembre 1601.
Roi de France le 14 mai 1610.
Mort à Saint-Germain-en-Laye le 14 mai 1643.

Louis XIV

Fils de Louis XIII et d'Anne d'Autriche.
Né à Saint-Germain-en-Laye le 5 septembre 1638.
Roi de France le 14 mai 1643.
Mort à Versailles le 1er septembre 1715.

Louis XV

Fils de Louis de Bourgogne et de Marie-Adélaïde de Savoie.
Né à Versailles le 15 février 1710.
Roi de France le 1er septembre 1715.
Mort à Versailles le 10 mai 1774.


Louis XVI

Fils du dauphin Louis, fils de Louis XV, et de Marie-Josèphe de Saxe.
Né à Versailles le 23 août 1754.
Roi de France le 10 mai 1774.
Mort à Paris le 21 janvier 1793.


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